We talk about the forth planet from the Sun and second smallest planet in our Solar System. It is the brightest object in the universe which can be seen by naked eyes. The Mars is recognized as Red planet. Mars have highest chance of life than other planet but still conditions are not enough to survive there.
In 1610 the Mars was observed by Galileo with a telescope first.
It has reddish appearance due to presence of iron oxide on it’s surface. The Mars has no magnetic field but in certain areas high magnetic field is noticed.
Carbon Dioxide,Nitrogen and argon are major gases present in atmosphere of mars. The atmospheric composition is 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen and also oxygen and water. Recently Methane also noticed in the atmosphere.
By continues analysis, it is strongly believed that the Mars was once very similar to the Earth. As per recent studies, there may be possibility of water even now on the Mars.
The Mars is 227.9 million km away from the Sun. The sunlight takes 13 minutes to reach on mars. From the earth farthest distance of mars is 401 million km and closest distance is 54.6 million km. Mar’s mass is 6.42 X 1023 kilogram which is 10 times less than Earth. The gravity of the mars is about 38% of Eatrh’s gravity.
One day on the mars is 24.6 hours and one year of 669.6 days. Axis of rotation of mars is tilted about 25.2 degree. The seasons on the mars are too longer than on the Earth since it takes longer to orbit the sun. The seasons on mars vary in length due to elliptical, egg-shaped orbital path around the sun.
Average temperature on the Mars’s is about -60 degree Celsius but in winter near poles temperature goes down to -125 degree Celsius. Very heavy dust storms are created on Mars’s surface which has speed about 160km/h which is largest in the solar system.
The mars has a dense core having a radius from 1.5 to 2.1 kms. It is made up of iron and nickel with about 16-17 % sulfur. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle which formed many tectonic plates and volcanic features on the planet. Iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium and potassium are also present in crust of mars. Average thickness of the crust is about 50km with maximum thickness of 125km.
The Olympus Mons is the tallest volcano on the Mars which is 21 kilometers high which tallest in entire solar system.
The Mars belongs to two moons named Phobos and Deimos. Phobos has a diameter of about 25km while Deimos has 15 km.
Phobos orbits mars only 6000km over surface, moving so fast in its orbit. It is believed that in some million years Phobos will drop low enough to enter the atmosphere and impact the surface.
The Mars lost its magnetosphere around 4 billion years ago due to impact of numerous asteroid and solar wind interacting directly with the martian ionosphere.
On northern pole 81.4 km wide Korolev Crater is being which is filled with 2.2 cubic km of water ice as shown in fig.There are two permanent polar ice caps. Both polar caps consist primarily of water ice about 70%.
Many impact craters are present on mars’s surface which total 43000 craters with diameter 5km of more found.
Mars have highest chance of life than other planet but still conditions are not enough to survive there.
Distance from Sun : 227.9 million km
Orbital Period : 687 days
Length of day : 1d 0h 37m
Radius : 3389.5 km