The Makemake is the second brightest object in Kuiper belt region after Pluto beyond the Neptune’s orbit and second farthest dwarf planet from the Sun. It was discovered on March 31, 2005 by Michael E. Brown and officially announced on July 29 , 2005. Former The Makemake was knows as 2005 FY9. In July 2008 it was given name the Makemake after god of humanity and fertility of Ester Island.
Properties of Makemake
- The makemake is the second brightest dwarf planet than Pluto in Kuiper belt region.
- Discovered on March 31, 2005 by team of Michael E. Brown.
- Previously it was known as 2005 FY9.
- The orbital period is about 306 years and one day is about 22.83 hours.
- Its aphelion is about 7.85 X 109 km and Perihelion is about 5.7 X 109 km.
- It receives the sun light in 6 hours and 20 minutes.
- Orbital plane is inclined by 29o to elliptical plane and eccentricity is 0.16.
- Diameter of Makemake at equator is 1434 km and at pole is 1422 km and density is 1.7 gm/cm3.
- Reddish colour is due to presence of methane and tholins on its surface.
- Nitrogen and methane are main components of its atmosphere.
- Its surface temperature is about -239o C.
- It has only one moon known as S/2015(136472)1 which has nickname is MK2.
- It has no any ring system.
The Makemake was formed before 4.5 billion years ago when rest of the solar bodies were formed from solar nebulae. It is the member of disk like zone orbits beyond Neptune’s orbit is called Kuiper belt.
Orbit and Rotation
Orbit of Makemake is very similer to that of Haumea. The Makemake completes one revolution around the Sun in 306 years. The orbital plane of Makemake is inclined by 29o to the elliptical plane and eccentric by 0.16. Farthest distance from the sun(Aphelion) of Makemake is 7.85 X 109 km while closest distance(Perihelion) is 5.7 X 109 km. Makemake will approach to aphelion in 2033. The average orbital speed is 4.419 km/s.
Rotation on its axis or one day of Makemake is about 22.83 hours which is relatively long than other dwarf planet. The sunlight takes 6 hours and 20 minutes to reach on the surface of Makemake.
Size and Surface
Mean radius of the Makemake is about 715 km and density is 1.7 gm/cm3. Spectral analysis of Makemake shows that the surface is reddish in colour due to presence of methane on its surface. Along with methane, ethane, tholins and alknes small amount of ethylyne, acetylene are also present. Tholins is the reason for thr red colourof thr Makemake. Evidence shows that nitrogen ice also available on the surface. The surface of the Makemake is not homogeneous and majority of its surface is covered by Nitrogen and Methane ices which cover about 78% to 90%.
The atmosphere of the Makemake is similar to that of the Pluto but have lower atmospheric pressure about 4 to 12 nano bar. Nitrogen and Methane are main ingredients which create transient atmosphere like that of Pluto. Due to lower the gravity of Makemake, large amount of Nitrogen lost due to atmospheric escape. Its surface temperature is about -2390 C.
The Makemake has only one moon which is known as S/2015(136472)1 have nickname MK2. It was discovered in 2016 by Hubble space Telescope’s wild field camera 3.It is about 175 km and orbital period of about less than 12 days. It is visible as a dark object.
The makemake has no any ring system and no magnetic field.
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Authored by BK Suthar.
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